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PostPosted: 08 Sep 2021, 07:08 
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ENGINEERING SCIENCE AT THE SERVICE OF SPORTS (table tennis)

Rubber Rebound Elasticity Test
https://chem21.info/
info/1335696/

A tempting idea came recently to my mind. My hands all itched for doing the job without long delay. I gave a call to our domestic University and they allowed me to enter the lab facilities and work up lab apparatus for money imput.

EQUIPMENT
Standard Schob resiliometer.

THE PURPOSE OF THE TESTS.
To determine a smooth sandwich rubber with the MAXIMUM ejection capacity..

RESULTS
12 rubber specimens were tested without a booster, at room temperature.
-- The first best result is 30%
-- The second best result is 27%
-- Tamasu Butterfly Tenergy 05
2.1 mm rubber showed the third
best result 26%

FINAL CONCLUSION.
On the general market, there are a number of rubber products that can play on the same pace with Tenergy-05 or excell that in projective power and ball speed.

Be happy.
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PostPosted: 09 Sep 2021, 11:49 
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RUBBERS SUPERIOR TO TENERGY.-05.



Being for long in encumbency of lab engineer I accumulated a large hip of rubber cuttings, and we can now use it as a "reference stock" for testing.

Through making lab testings a lot, we were able to reveal which of the rubbers do excell Tenergy in BOUNCE AND BALL SPEED. Far cheaper thought.

We always looking for more rubber specimens, seeing that many beautiful rubber products emerged on market lately.

NOTE
the small triangle cuttings sized 3x3cm will do pretty well.

Thank you a lot.


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PostPosted: 08 Oct 2021, 23:09 
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1. HOW ESN TENSORS ARE MADE.
2. HOW CHINA TENSORS ARE MADE.


A Russian chemist Pd. long experienced in tire-making industry, he is perfectly versed of making table tennis rubber products. He kindly updated me on the making of the so-called "tensored rubbers" -
1. the Germany patented ESN tensor sponge
2. the Chinese domestic "factory tuned" sponge.

By now, the world's major manufacturers are using two main techniques to produce rubber materials with enormous bouncing capacity.,
— the Germany patented working process known as ESN "tensors"
— Chinese high-bounce sponge known as "factory tuned" product.

Both China and German products will give you a superior rebound speed, without manual posterior boosting on the rubbers.
1) ESN is known to introduce napthenic mineral oil to the raw vulcanizate, for getting the "tensor" effect.
2) China rubber plants have now opted for a different way to a high-bounce rubber. Chinese will apply oil additives onto a sponge after vulcanization is completed, by sinking the sponge sheet in a hot bath with oil.

PS// The SHELL Oil Deuchland Company is known to supply processing napthenic oils and the BUNA syntetic rubber for ESN table tennis factory under the long-term agreement.
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PostPosted: 11 Oct 2021, 02:49 
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EVOLUTION FROM THE RUBBER GLOBE TO TENSOR RUBBER.
1965 is the year that the amazingly springy rubber globe encaptured America all over.. This wonderful syntetic material originally known as Zectron was later re-opened in 1994 by a chemist nut,
a German one keen of the sport.
Yes, the Superball will produce recognizable "clicking" sound on impact much beloved by all the table tennis folks.

Today's table tennis Tensor rubbers by ESN Germany are being all made of syntetic stuff of BLACK BUNA (derivative of Butadiene polimer), the stuff featuring enormous bounce capacity.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Super_Ball


QUERY: What makes a Superball so super?

The patent for Superballs filed by its inventor Norman Stingley in the year 1965, lists as its main ingredient a well-known polymer known as polybutadiene, a name that does mean something to chemists. The prefix “but-” means a four-carbon chain. The “-ene” ending means double bond, and “di-” means two. So “butadiene” means a four-carbon chain with two double bonds: CH2=CHCH=CH2

Apparently, when polybutadiene is vulcanized at a temperature of 160 °C and a pressure of 70 atm (according to Stingley’s patent), it creates a cross-linked polymer with a resilience of 92%. This meant that if you dropped a Superball from 100.0 cm onto a hard surface, it would bounce back to about 92.0 cm, then 84.6 cm, then 77.9 cm, and so on, always bouncing to about 92% of its previous height. When many elastic substances are distorted, they regain their original shape, but in the process, some of the energy that went into distorting the substance is lost as heat. If it didn’t, you could theoretically produce a Superball that would bounce forever (ignoring air resistance). Anyone who has played squash or racquetball is familiar with how the ball heats up the more it is bounced.
Vulcanized polybutadiene only loses 8% of its energy to heat per collision, and therefore bounces back with 92% resiliency. This was much more than any bouncing ball ever manufactured in the World's History.
This alone was impressive, but it alone would not have made the Superball the hottest selling toy of the mid-1960s. A second remarkable property of Stingley’s “Zectron” was its high coefficient of friction. Try pulling a Superball across a smooth surface, and you will appreciate this effect. When bounced across the floor to a friend, the first bounce causes the ball to acquire a significant topspin. This topspin then propels the ball with remarkable speed on the second bounce, making it nearly impossible to catch. This high coefficient of friction also allowed for all kinds of tricks, the most famous of the being the under-table bounce: If the ball is bounced off the floor so that it hits the underside of a table, the aforementioned topspin makes the ball rebound straight back to the thrower. If you have never seen this, give it a try.
You can now get a pretty good re-make of the Superball from some China marketplace directly.

Be happy.


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